Cassatt (Cataracts, Diabetic Retinopathy)

Cezanne (Myopia)

Degas (Retinopathy)

El Greco (Astigmatism?)

Monet (Cataracts)

Rembrandt (Visual Aging)

Renoir (Myopia)

Van Gogh (Xanthopsia?)






For more on the use of visual information in art:

Hanover - Art and Vision - this site gives an excellent tutorial on the relationship between visual perception and art. Features information on linear perspective, depth cues, and optical illusions as they relate to art.


For access to more art:

The Louvre - the official website of the Louvre museum.

The Artchive - lots of information on artists, theory, and criticism. Has galleries and reviews of art CD-ROMS. A well-organized site, with access to other resources.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art - information on the museum and its collections. Also has books, membership, and an informative Explore & Learn section featuring information on painters such as Mary Cassatt and Edgar Degas.

The Artcyclopedia – a searchable database that is incredibly easy to use. Alternately can browse by movement, medium, subject, nationality, or name.

For more information on visual disorders and their clinical treatment:

The National Eye Institute - a broad resource with comprehensive information for patients and health care practitioners on a variety of visual disorders, treatments, and current research. Also includes a photo, image, and video library.

New England Eye Center - concentrates on visual disorders and treatments, with information for both patients and physicians. Features a discussion board and new research directions.

Gimbel Eye Centre - specializing in vision correction options. Give information on LASIK, PRK and upcoming seminars.

EyeNet – American Academy of Opthamology. Has acccess to everything you would want to know about visual disorders and their clincial treament.

For more information on visual perception:

Sighting the First Sense - an award-winning site with choice of language. Has basic information on the eye, perception, light and many fun and interactive features. Easy to navigate.

The Joy of Visual Perception – A Web Book - good information in this site, however the use of frames makes navigation somewhat confusing. Optional view without frames helps this problem. Contains information on a variety of topics in visual perception. Layout and information is similar in style to a textbook. Ease of navigation is moderate.

ELA Vision and Color Directory – impressive array of links to vision and other related sites. Categorizes sites on everything from optical illusions to light and optics to psychology in general. Many of the sites are personal, so quality of content varies.

NASA Perceptual and Behavioral Research Group – advanced site with good links for further exploration. Details ongoing projects by the research group.


Journal Articles

Brauer, A. (1983). What if Renoir had worn glasses? MD Magazine, 6, 86-97.

Elliot, D. B. & Skaff, A. (1993). Vision of the famous: The artist’s eye. Ophthalmology Physiology Optometry, 13, 82-90.


Books and Chapters

Baumann, F., & Karabelnik, M. (Eds.). (1994). Degas: Portraits. Merrell Holberton: London.

Cachin, F., Cahn, I., Feilchenfeldt, W., Loyretter, H., & Rishel, J. J. (Eds.). (1996). Cézanne. Harry N. Abrams, Inc.: New York.

Kendall, R. (Ed.). (1989). Monet by Himself. Macdonald Orbis: London.

Kendall, R. (Ed.). (1987). Degas by Himself. Macdonald Orbis: London.

Mowll, N. M. (Ed.). (1996). Cassatt: A Retrospective. H. L. Levin Associates, Inc.: New York.

Mowll, N. M. (Ed.). (1984). Cassatt and Her Circle: Selected Letters. New York: Abbeville Press.

Ravin, J. G. (1997). Artistic vision in old age: Claude Monet. In M. F. Marmor, & J. G. Ravin (Eds.), The Eye of the Artist (pp. 168-180). St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book, Inc.

Ravin, J. G. (1997). Cataracts, diabetes, and radium: The case of Cassatt. In M. F. Marmor, & J. G. Ravin (Eds.), The Eye of the Artist (pp. 181-186). St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book, Inc.

Ravin, J. G., & Kenyon, C. A. (1997). The blindness of Edgar Degas. In M. F. Marmor, & J. G. Ravin (Eds.), The Eye of the Artist (pp. 193-203). St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book, Inc.

Ravin, J. G., & Marmor, M. F. (1997). The vision of Vincent van Gogh. In M. F. Marmor, & J. G. Ravin (Eds.), The Eye of the Artist (pp. 108-117). St.Louis: Mosby-Year Book, Inc.

Rewald, J. (Ed.). (1976). Cézanne: Letters. Hacker Art Books, Inc.: New York.

Rewald, J., & Weitzenhoffer, F. (Eds.). (1984). Aspects of Monet. Harry N. Abrams, Inc.: New York.

Sandblom, P. (1989). Creativity and Disease (5th ed.). G.B. Lippincott Co.: Philadelphia.

Solso, R.L. (1994). Cognition and the Visual Arts. MIT Press: Massachusetts.

Stuckey, C.F. (Ed.). (1985). Monet: A Retrospective. Hugh Lauter Levin Associates, Inc.: New York.

Sweetman, D. (1990). Van Gogh: His Life and His Art. Crown Publishers: New York.

Trevor-Roper, P. D. (1988). The World Through Blunted Sight. London: Penguin.

White, C., & Buvelot, Q. (Eds.). (1999). Rembrandt by Himself. National Gallery Publications Ltd.: London.

Wildenstein, D. (1985). Claude Monet Biographie et Catalogue Raisonne (Vols. 1-4). Lausanne et Paris: Bibliothèque des Arts.

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Cassatt | Cézanne | Degas | El Greco | Monet | Rembrandt | Renoir | Van Gogh